Herschel/HerMES: The X-ray-infrared correlation for star-forming galaxies at z∼1

M. Symeonidis, A. Georgakakis, N. Seymour, R. Auld, J. Bock, D. Brisbin, V. Buat, D. Burgarella, P. Chanial, D. L. Clements, A. Cooray, S. Eales, D. Farrah, A. Franceschini, J. Glenn, M. Griffin, E. Hatziminaoglou, E. Ibar, R. J. Ivison, A. M.J. MortierS. J. Oliver, M. J. Page, A. Papageorgiou, C. P. Pearson, I. Pérez-Fournon, M. Pohlen, J. I. Rawlings, G. Raymond, G. Rodighiero, I. G. Roseboom, M. Rowan-Robinson, Douglas Scott, A. J. Smith, K. E. Tugwell, M. Vaccari, J. D. Vieira, L. Vigroux, L. Wang, G. Wright

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


For the first time, we investigate the X-ray/infrared (IR) correlation for star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z∼ 1, using SPIRE submm data from the recently launched Herschel Space Observatory and deep X-ray data from the 2-Ms Chandra Deep Field-North survey. We examine the X-ray/IR correlation in the soft X-ray (SX; 0.5-2keV) and hard X-ray (HX; 2-10keV) bands by comparing our z∼ 1 SPIRE-detected SFGs to equivalently IR-luminous (LIR > 1010L) samples in the local/low-redshift Universe. Our results suggest that the X-ray/IR properties of the SPIRE SFGs are on average similar to those of their local counterparts, as we find no evidence for evolution in the LSX/LIR and LHX/LIR ratios with redshift. We note, however, that at all redshifts, both LSX/LIR and LHX/LIR are strongly dependent on IR luminosity, with luminous and ultraluminous IR galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs; LIR > 1011L) having up to an order of magnitude lower values than normal IR galaxies (LIR < 1011L). We derive a LSX-LIR relation and confirm the applicability of an existing LHX-LIR relation for both local and distant LIRGs and ULIRGs, consistent with a scenario where X-ray luminosity is correlated with the star formation rate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2239-2252
Number of pages14
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number3
StatePublished - Nov 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Galaxies: general
  • Galaxies: high-redshift
  • Galaxies: starburst
  • Infrared: galaxies
  • X-rays: galaxies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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