Herbicide and tracer movement to field drainage tiles under simulated rainfall conditions

George Frank Czapar, R. S. Kanwar, R. S. Fawcett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The extent of herbicide and tracer leaching to field drainage tiles may help to predict chemical movement to deeper groundwater systems. Field experiments were conducted in 1988 and 1989 to measure herbicide and tracer movement to tile lines during and immediately after a simulated heavy rainstorm. The eight tile lines monitored were 1.2 m deep and 3.4 m long. In 1988, alachlor (2-chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-N-(methoxymethyl)acetamide), cyanazine (2-[[4-chloro-6-(ethylamino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-2-methylpropaneni trile) and Rhodamine WT dye were applied to 4.5-m 2 plots directly over field drainage tiles. In 1989, alachlor, cyanazine, Rhodamine WT, and pendimethalin (N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4 dimethyl-2,6 dinitrobenzenamine) were used. Chloride or bromide tracers were also soil applied. The plots were irrigated 24 h after chemical application with a rainfall simulator. In 1988, 53 mm of rainfall was applied, whereas 81 mm of rain was applied in 1989. Tile effluent was intensively sampled for 8 h after irrigation. In 1988, herbicide and Rhodamine dye concentration peaks ranged from 1 to 38 μg l -1 . In 1989, concentrations were higher than in 1988, with alachlor and cyanazine concentration peaks exceeding 500 μg l -1 from one tile line. In contrast, pendimethalin was found in only one sample, barely above the detection limit. Rhodamine WT was found to be useful as a tracer to study the movement of alachlor and cyanazine in the soil profile. In all tile effluent samples containing Rhodamine WT, alachlor and cyanazine were also detected. In both years, herbicide and dye concentrations peaked within 130 min after the start of rainfall. The rapid solute movement to the 1.2 m tile depth suggests that preferential flow is an important mechanism affecting chemical transport through structured soils.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19-32
Number of pages14
JournalSoil and Tillage Research
Volume30
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1994

Fingerprint

tile drainage
alachlor
cyanazine
tiles
rainfall simulation
herbicide
tracer techniques
herbicides
tracer
drainage
rainfall
dye
dyes
pendimethalin
rain
effluents
effluent
preferential flow
rainstorm
rainfall simulators

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Soil Science
  • Earth-Surface Processes

Cite this

Herbicide and tracer movement to field drainage tiles under simulated rainfall conditions. / Czapar, George Frank; Kanwar, R. S.; Fawcett, R. S.

In: Soil and Tillage Research, Vol. 30, No. 1, 05.1994, p. 19-32.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Czapar, George Frank ; Kanwar, R. S. ; Fawcett, R. S. / Herbicide and tracer movement to field drainage tiles under simulated rainfall conditions. In: Soil and Tillage Research. 1994 ; Vol. 30, No. 1. pp. 19-32.
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