Hemorrhage near fetal rat bone exposed to pulsed ultrasound

Timothy A. Bigelow, Rita J. Miller, James P. Blue, William D. O'Brien

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Ultrasound-induced hemorrhage near the fetal rat skull was investigated to determine if the damage could be correlated with temporal-average intensity. A 0.92-MHz f/1 spherically focused transducer (5.1-cm focal length) was used to expose the skull of 18- to 19-day gestation exteriorized Sprague-Dawley rat fetuses (n = 197). There were four ultrasound-exposed groups (n = 36 each), one sham exposed group (n = 36) and one cage control group (n = 17). Three of the ultrasound-exposed groups had the same peak compressional (10 MPa)/peak rarefactional (6.7 MPa) pressure but different spatial-peak temporal-average intensities (ITA) of 1.9, 4.7 and 9.4 W/cm2; the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) was varied (100, 250 and 500 Hz, respectively). The fourth ultrasound-exposed group had a peak compressional (6.7 MPa)/peak rarefactional (5.0 MPa) pressure and corresponding ITA of 4.6 W/cm2; PRF was 500 Hz. Hemorrhage occurrence increased slightly with increasing ITA, as well as peak rarefactional pressure and PRF, but the hemorrhage area did not correlate with any of the exposure parameters. (E-mail: timothybigelow@mail.und.nodak.edu).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)311-317
Number of pages7
JournalUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2007


  • Fetal bone
  • Hemorrhage
  • Rat
  • Ultrasound bioeffects

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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