Heavy metal stress

Ksenija Gasic, Schuyler S. Korban

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Heavy metals are defined as those having densities higher than 5 g cm -3. Ions of heavy metals such as iron, copper, zinc, cobalt, or nickel are essential micronutrients that are critically involved in functional activities of large numbers of proteins involved in sustaining growth and development of living organisms. However, at excess concentrations, these metal ions can become detrimental to living organisms. Furthermore, these organisms can be also exposed to highly toxic ions of cadmium, lead, mercury, and other metals that are generally considered non-essential.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPhysiology and Molecular Biology of Stress Tolerance in Plants
PublisherSpringer Netherlands
Number of pages36
ISBN (Print)1402042248, 9781402042249
StatePublished - Dec 1 2006


  • Chelation
  • Heavy metals
  • Hyperaccumulators
  • Metallothioneins
  • Phytochelatins
  • Phytoremediation
  • Transporters

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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