Little is known about the extent of physical limitations and chronic illness within the US farm and ranch population or even the general health of farmers and ranchers on a national scale. With the farmer and rancher numbers declining, the average age of the farmer/rancher is steadily rising and the occupational hazards/risks are increasing. We expect to see a higher prevalence of physical limitations and chronic incidence of disease in this population. The focus of this paper is to examine the health and physical limitations of the working age farm and ranch population, age 20 and above. Since farming and ranching is a lifestyle, not just a job, farmers and ranchers may still farm full-time or part-time even though they have reached retirement age. This national study compares the farm and ranch population with the general population. We use National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), the most detailed annual health surveys in the US that combine personal interviews and physical examinations of a nationally representative sample. Three NHANES waves from 1999 through 2004 are combined in a pooled cross-section to answer the following questions: What is the prevalence of physical limitations in the farm and ranch population? How does the farm and ranch population fare against the general population in terms of physical limitations and general health?