Little is known about harbor porpoises at the individual level or local group structure. Group characteristics, site fidelity, and photo-identification of harbor porpoises were investigated off Fidalgo Island, Washington State. Harbor porpoise presence was affected by season and rip tide strength (Wald χ2 P <0.04); calf presence was influenced by season and tide (Wald χ2 P <0.0075). Average group size (2.32 ± 1.38, n = 266) was influenced by season, behavior, and calf presence (F7 = 9.71, P <0.0001, R2 = 0.294). Fifty-three individuals were identified using a matrix of primary, secondary, and confirmation markings that were stable over months/years. Over 35% were resighted in more than 1 mo (range 1–7, x¯ = 1.83); 15.1% were seen in more than 1 yr, suggesting some level of residency. Despite having higher effort, presence and group size were significantly lower in Summer. Variations in the significance of rip tide strength and tides relate to calf presence and support other findings that harbor porpoise population structure is complex and varies at small spatiotemporal scales and may also vary between populations and habitats. This study identifies variables affecting group characteristics and emphasizes the importance of research on local populations of harbor porpoises.
Elliser, C. R., MacIver, K. H., & Green, M. L. (2018). Group characteristics, site fidelity, and photo-identification of harbor porpoises, Phocoena phocoena, in Burrows Pass, Fidalgo Island, Washington. Marine Mammal Science, 34(2), 365-384. https://doi.org/10.1111/mms.12459