Recent studies find vegetation around schools correlates positively with student test scores. To test this relationship in schools with less green cover and more disadvantaged students, we replicated a leading study, using six years of NDVI-derived greenness data to predict school-level math and reading achievement in 404 Chicago public schools. A direct replication yielded highly mixed results with some significant positive relationships between greenness and academic achievement, some negative, and some null – but accompanying VIF scores in the thousands indicated untenable levels of multicollinearity. An adjusted replication corrected for multicollinearity and yielded stable results; surprisingly, all models then showed near-zero but statistically significant negative relationships between greenness and performance. In low-green, high-disadvantage schools, negative greenness-academic performance links may reflect the predominance of grass in measures of overall greenness and/or insufficient statistical controls for the moderating effect of disadvantage.
- Academic performance
- Remote sensing
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Nature and Landscape Conservation
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
- Urban Studies