Grating Lobe Reduction in Plane-Wave Imaging with Angular Compounding Using Subtraction of Coherent Signals

Zhengchang Kou, Rita J. Miller, Michael L. Oelze

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Plane-wave imaging (PWI) with angular compounding has gained in popularity over recent years, because it provides high frame rates and good image properties. However, most linear arrays used in clinical practice have a pitch that is equal to than the wavelength of ultrasound. Hence, the presence of grating lobes is a concern for PWI using multiple transmit angles. The presence of grating lobes produces clutter in images and reduces the ability to observe tissue contrast. Techniques to reduce or eliminate the presence of grating lobes for PWI using multiple angles will result in improved image quality. Null subtraction imaging (NSI) is a nonlinear beamforming technique that has been explored for improving the lateral resolution of ultrasonic imaging. However, the apodization scheme used in NSI also eliminates or greatly reduces the presence of grating lobes. Imaging tasks using NSI were evaluated in simulations and physical experiments involving tissue-mimicking phantoms and rat tumors in vivo. Images created with NSI were compared with images created using traditional delay and sum (DAS) with Hann apodization and images created using a generalized coherence factor (GCF). NSI was observed to greatly reduce the presence of grating lobes in ultrasonic images, compared to DAS with Hann and GCF, while maintaining spatial resolution and contrast in the images. Therefore, NSI can provide a novel means of creating images using PWI with multiple steering angles on clinically available linear arrays while reducing the adverse effects associated with grating lobes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3308-3316
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2022


  • Apodization
  • beamforming
  • null subtraction imaging (NSI)
  • plane-wave imaging (PWI)
  • ultrasonic imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


Dive into the research topics of 'Grating Lobe Reduction in Plane-Wave Imaging with Angular Compounding Using Subtraction of Coherent Signals'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this