Glutamine infusion during ischemia is detrimental in a murine gut ischemia/reperfusion model

Kazuhiko Fukatsu, Chikara Ueno, Yojiro Hashiguchi, Etsuko Hara, Manabu Kinoshita, Hidetaka Mochizuki, Hoshio Hiraide, Kelly Tappenden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Gut ischemia/reperfusion (IR) frequently occurs in clinical settings as a result of disproportionate splanchnic hypoperfusion during shock. Glutamine (GLN) supplementation of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) before gut UR improves survival after gut UR compared with standard TPN. However, it is unknown whether GLN treatment after the occurrence of the insult is beneficial or not. The aims of this study were to examine effects of GLN infusion during gut ischemia on survival, myeloid cell (neutrophils + monocytes) activation, and vascular permeability in organs. Methods: Male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were randomized to control and GLN groups. After IV cannulation, mice underwent 90 (experiments 1 and 2) or 60 (experiment 3) minutes of gut I/R. Control mice received normal saline infusion at 1 mL/h for 60 minutes during ischemia, whereas the GLN group was given 3% GLN solution. In experiment 1, survival rates were monitored for 72 hours (n = 25). In experiment 2, peripheral blood was obtained at 2 or 4 hours after reperfusion (n = 17). Reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) production by myeloid cells was determined by flow cytometry using dihydrorhodamine 123 with or without phorbol myristate acetate stimulation. Expression of CD11a and CD11b on myeloid cells was also measured. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the lung was evaluated. In experiment 3, vascular permeability in organs was measured using Evans blue at 2 or 4 hours. Results: In experiment 1, survival time in the GLN group was significantly reduced compared with the control group (p = .02 log-rank test). The survival rates were 92% (12/13) and 42% (5/12) for the control and GLN groups at 12 hours (p = .01) and 38% (5/13) and 0% (0/12) at 48 hours (p = .02), respectively. In experiment 2, ROI production was significantly higher in the GLN group than in the control group after PMA stimulation both at 2 and 4 hours. CD11b expression was significantly higher in the GLN group than in the control group at 4 hours. There was no difference in pulmonary MPO activity at either time point. In experiment 3, GLN infusion significantly increased hepatic vascular permeability compared with saline infusion at 4 hours. Conclusions: GLN infusion during ischemia is detrimental for survival after gut I/R. A possible mechanism is excessive priming of myeloid cells caused by GLN infusion. Timing of GLN administration is critical for outcome after gut ischemic insult.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)187-192
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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