Geological Survey Data and the Move from 2-D to 4-D

Martin Culshaw, Ian Jackson, Denis Peach, Michiel J. van der Meulen, Richard Berg, Harvey Thorleifson

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter discusses the role of geological surveys, the sorts of data they hold, and how these data holdings provide the public with information useful for multiple applications. Geological surveys have a specific interest in maintaining an accessible archive of geological information. The general purpose of geological surveying is to explore natural capital and natural hazards. Many geological surveys are facing the challenge of establishing appropriate budgetary support levels and determining financial sources to support the costs resulting from the transition from traditional geological mapping approaches to 3-D geological mapping programs. Geological modeling is increasingly recognized as the raison d’être and prime responsibility of geological surveys. Some geological surveys have the resources and capacity to use commercial software specifically designed to construct sophisticated 3-D and 4-D models. Combining geological models with process models permits the integration of existing scientific knowledge to define natural earth systems and how they work.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationApplied Multidimensional Geological Modeling: Informing sustainable human interactions with the shallow subsurface
EditorsAlan Keith Turner, Holger Kessler, Michiel J van der Meulen
ISBN (Electronic)9781119163091
ISBN (Print)9781119163121
StatePublished - Jul 6 2021


  • 3-D geological mapping program
  • natural earth systems
  • geological survey
  • geological mapping approaches
  • financial source
  • 4-D models


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