Distribution factors play a key role in many system security analysis and market applications. The injection shift factors (ISFs) are the basic factors that serve as building blocks of the other distribution factors. The line outage distribution factors (LODFs) may be computed using the ISFs and, in fact, may be iteratively evaluated when more than one line outage is considered. The prominent role of cascading outages in recent blackouts has created a need in security applications for evaluating LODFs under multiple-line outages. In this letter, we present an analytic, closed-form expression for and the computationally efficient evaluation of LODFs under multiple-line outages.
- Line outage distribution factors (LODFs)
- Multiple-line outages
- Power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs)
- System security
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering