Generalized Injection Shift Factors

Yu Christine Chen, Sairaj V. Dhople, Alejandro D. Dominguez-Garcia, Peter W. Sauer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Generalized injection shift factors (ISFs) are the sensitivities of active-power line flows to active-power bus injections. They are computed without designating an artifactual slack bus in the power network; therefore, conceptually, they reflect sensitivities of power flows more accurately than conventional ISFs, the values of which depend on the choice of the slack bus. This paper derives analytical closed-form expressions for generalized ISFs from a perturbative analysis of the ac circuit equations. In addition, they are computed from a system of linear equations that arise from high-frequency synchronized measurements collected from phasor measurement units. As an application, generalized ISFs are used to predict active-power line flows during the transient period following a contingency by leveraging inertial and governor power flows over appropriate time horizons.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7420704
Pages (from-to)2071-2080
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2017


  • Distribution factor
  • injection shift factor
  • monitoring
  • phasor measurement units
  • sensitivity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science


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