Generalized impedance boundary condition for conductor modeling in surface integral equation

Zhi Guo Qian, Weng Cho Chew, Roberto Suaya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A generalized impedance boundary condition is developed to rigorously model on-chip interconnects in the full-wave surface integral equation by a two-region formulation. It is a combination of the electric-field integral equation for the exterior region and the magnetic-field integral equation for the interior conductive region. The skin effect is, therefore, well captured. A novel integration technique is proposed to evaluate the Green's function integrals in the conductive medium. Towards tackling large-scale problems, the mixed-form fast multipole algorithm and the multifrontal method are incorporated. A new scheme of the loop-tree decomposition is also used to alleviate the low-frequency breakdown for the formulation. Numerical examples show the accuracy and reduced computation cost.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2354-2364
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Full-wave solver
  • Generalized impedance boundary condition
  • Impedance boundary condition
  • Interconnects
  • Loop tree
  • Mixed-form fast multipole algorithm
  • Skin effect
  • Surface integral equation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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