Generalizability of center of pressure measures of quiet standing

Richard J. Doyle, Elizabeth T. Hsiao-Wecksler, Brian G. Ragan, Karl S. Rosengren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Center of pressure (COP) measures are commonly used as indicators of balance and postural control. At present, there are no universally accepted standards in research investigating fluctuations in the COP with regard to the number of trials or the length of a given trial. The purpose of this study was to use the tools of Generalizability Theory (G-Theory) to investigate the reliability of COP measures of quiet standing and to establish an optimal measurement protocol. G-Theory provides a tool that allows us to break down the sources of variation, or facets, in a measurement procedure and ultimately design a protocol that provides optimal reliability. Fifteen participants completed 10 90-s trials with eyes open and closed. COP measures of anterior-posterior standard deviation (SDAP), medial-lateral SD (SDML), average velocity (Vel), and 95% confidence ellipse area (Area) were calculated using the first 30, 60, and 90 s of each trial. A G-study and follow-up D-studies were performed to estimate reliability coefficients (G-coefficients). The results of the G-Theory analysis suggest that these COP measures reached acceptable levels of reliability (G ≥ 0.70) with at least five 60 s trials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)166-171
Number of pages6
JournalGait and Posture
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2007


  • Balance
  • Center of pressure
  • Generalizability
  • Quiet standing
  • Reliability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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