Gender, Immigration and Commuting in Metropolitan Canada

Valerie Preston, Sara McLafferty, Monika Maciejewska

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Immigrant workers often commute by transit more than other workers. Although immigrants' reliance on transit is often attributed to the same factors as women's reliance on transit: low incomes, limited access to cars, and a tendency to work close to home, gender differences are discussed rarely in analyses of immigrant commuting. Using 2016 Census of Canada microdata, we examine the use of four commute modes: driving, transit, active commuting in the form of walking and biking and being driven to work by immigrant men and women. Multinomial logistic regression indicates how economic, social, housing and metropolitan characteristics influence the use of each commute mode. Immigrant women, especially recent immigrants, are more likely to use alternative modes than immigrant men in all metropolitan areas. The findings underscore the importance of rapid and reliable transit to ensure equitable geographical access to employment for immigrant women, particularly during their first 10 years in Canada.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)348-364
Number of pages17
JournalTijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie
Issue number4
StatePublished - Sep 2022


  • Canadian metropolitan areas
  • commuting mode
  • gender
  • immigrants

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Economics and Econometrics


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