New application domains have faded the barriers between humans and robots, introducing a new set of complexities to robotic systems. The major impediment is the uncertainties associated with human decision making, which makes it challenging to predict human behavior. A realistic model of human behavior is thus vital to capture humans’ interactive behavior with their surroundings and provide robots with reliable estimates on what is most likely to happen. Focusing on operations of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) in areas with a high presence of human actors (i.e., pedestrians), this study creates an interactive decision-making framework to predict pedestrians’ trajectories when walking in a shared environment with vehicles and other pedestrians. It develops a game theoretical structure to approximate the movement and directional components of pedestrian motion using the theory of Nash equilibria in non-cooperative games. It also introduces a novel payoff structure to address the inherent uncertainties in human behavior. Ground truth pedestrian trajectories are then used to calibrate the game parameters and evaluate the model’s performance in approximating the motion decisions of human agents in interaction with interfering vehicles and pedestrians. The main contribution of the study is to develop an interactive human– vehicle decision-making framework toward realizing human–vehicle coexistence by capturing the effect of pedestrian–vehicle and pedestrian–pedestrian interactions on choice of walking strategies. The derived knowledge could be used in CAV navigation algorithms to provide the vehicle with more accurate predictions of pedestrian behavior, and in turn, improve CAV motion planning in human-populated areas.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Civil and Structural Engineering
- Mechanical Engineering