Gait Generation and Stabilization for Nearly Passive Dynamic Walking Using Auto-distributed Impulses

Jae Sung Moon, Dušan M. Stipanović, Mark W. Spong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We propose a state feedback control design via linearization for flexible walking on flat ground. First, we generate nearly passive limit cycles, being stable or not, using impulsive toe-off actuations. The term ‘nearly passive’ means that the dynamics is completely passive almost everywhere except at the toe-off moment. A feature of our gait generation method is that walking gaits are characterized only by amounts of supplied energy, and we observe that other variables, including input torques, are auto-balanced via our method. After gait generation, we design a feedback controller considering robustness and input saturation. As a result, each limit cycle can be matched with its respective controller classified only by energy levels. We have verified that walking speeds monotonically increase by adding more energy, and the ankle joint plays a significant role in compass-gait walking. Finally, instead of applying impulsive torques, we discuss a practical issue regarding realistic control inputs that ensure stable gait transitions as energy levels are elevated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1343-1358
Number of pages16
JournalAsian Journal of Control
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 2016


  • Nearly passive dynamic walking
  • auto-distributed impulses
  • gait generation
  • locally robust stabilization
  • speed regulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering


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