## Abstract

A method for calculating the free energy of an inhomogeneous superconductor is presented. This method is based on the quasiclassical limit (or Andreev approximation) of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (or wave function) formulation of the theory of weakly coupled superconductors. The method is applicable to any pure bulk superconductor described by a pair potential with arbitrary spatial dependence, in the presence of supercurrents and external magnetic field. We find that both the local density of states and the free energy density of an inhomogeneous superconductor can be expressed in terms of the diagonal resolvent of the corresponding Andreev Hamiltonian, which obeys the so-called Gelfand-Dikii equation. Also, the connection between the well known Eilenberger equation for the quasiclassical Green's function and the less known Gelfand-Dikii equation for the diagonal resolvent of the Andreev Hamiltonian is established. These results are used to construct a general algorithm for calculating the (gauge invariant) gradient expansion of the free energy density of an inhomogeneous superconductor at arbitrary temperatures.

Original language | English (US) |
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Pages (from-to) | 9365-9384 |

Number of pages | 20 |

Journal | Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics |

Volume | 58 |

Issue number | 14 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 1998 |

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics