## Abstract

The level-k ℓ_1-Fourier weight of a Boolean function refers to the sum of absolute values of its level-k Fourier coefficients. Fourier growth refers to the growth of these weights as k grows. It has been extensively studied for various computational models, and bounds on the Fourier growth, even for the first few levels, have proven useful in learning theory, circuit lower bounds, pseudorandomness, and quantum-classical separations.In this work, we investigate the Fourier growth of certain functions that naturally arise from communication protocols for XOR functions (partial functions evaluated on the bitwise XOR of the inputs x and y to Alice and Bob). If a protocol C computes an XOR function, then C(x, y) is a function of the parity x ⊕ y. This motivates us to analyze the XOR-fiber of the communication protocol C, defined as h(z):=E_x, y[C(x, y) · x ⊕ y=z].We present improved Fourier growth bounds for the XOR-fibers of randomized protocols that communicate d bits. For the first level, we show a tight O(√d) bound and obtain a new coin theorem, as well as an alternative proof for the tight randomized communication lower bound for the Gap-Hamming problem. For the second level, we show an d3/2 · polylog(n) bound, which improves the previous O(d2) bound by Girish, Raz, and Tal (ITCS 2021) and implies a polynomial improvement on the randomized communication lower bound for the XOR-lift of the Forrelation problem, which extends the quantum-classical gap for this problem.Our analysis is based on a new way of adaptively partitioning a relatively large set in Gaussian space to control its moments in all directions. We achieve this via martingale arguments and allowing protocols to transmit real values. We also show a connection between Fourier growth and lifting theorems with constant-sized gadgets as a potential approach to prove optimal bounds for the second level and beyond.

Original language | English (US) |
---|---|

Title of host publication | Proceedings - 2023 IEEE 64th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS 2023 |

Publisher | IEEE Computer Society |

Pages | 721-732 |

Number of pages | 12 |

ISBN (Electronic) | 9798350318944 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 2023 |

Event | 64th IEEE Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS 2023 - Santa Cruz, United States Duration: Nov 6 2023 → Nov 9 2023 |

### Publication series

Name | Proceedings - Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS |
---|---|

ISSN (Print) | 0272-5428 |

### Conference

Conference | 64th IEEE Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS 2023 |
---|---|

Country/Territory | United States |

City | Santa Cruz |

Period | 11/6/23 → 11/9/23 |

## Keywords

- analysis of Boolean functions
- communication protocol
- Fourier growth
- quantum-classical separation

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- General Computer Science