Four-dimensional imaging of cytoskeletal dynamics in Xenopus oocytes and eggs

William M. Bement, Anna M. Sokac, Craig A. Mandato

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) system has long been popular for studies of both developmental and cell biology, based on a variety of its intrinsic features including the large size of Xenopus oocytes, eggs, and embryos, and the relative ease of manipulation. Unfortunately, the large size has also been considered a serious impediment for high-resolution light microscopy, as has the heavy pigmentation. However, the recent development and exploitation of 4D imaging approaches, and the fact that much of what is of most interest to cell and developmental biologists takes place near the cell surface, indicates that such concerns are no longer valid. Consequently, the Xenopus system in many respects is now as good as other model systems considered to be ideal for microscopy-based studies. Here, 4D imaging and its recent applications to cytoskeletal imaging in Xenopus oocytes and eggs are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)518-527
Number of pages10
Issue number9-10
StatePublished - Dec 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • 4D imaging
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Eggs
  • Embryos
  • Xenopus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology
  • Cancer Research


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