Force calibration for an endovascular robotic system with proximal force measurement

Naveen Kumar Sankaran, Pramod Chembrammel, Thenkurussi Kesavadas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Surgeons, while performing manual endovascular procedures with conventional surgical tools (catheters and guidewires), experience forces on the tool outside the patient's body that are proximal to the point of actuation. Currently, most of the robotic systems for endovascular procedures use active catheters to navigate vasculature and to measure the contact forces at the distal end (tool tip). These tools are more expensive than the conventional surgical tools used in endovascular procedures. To avoid dependence on specialized devices like active catheters, we have developed a novel endovascular robotic system (ERS) that uses conventional surgical tools. Our robot can indirectly measure proximal forces and provide haptic feedback to surgeons. This paper discusses the theory, methodology, and calibration of indirect proximal force measurement. This new calibration technique is presented as a nested optimization problem that is solved using bi-level optimization. The results of experimental validation of the new force calibration methodology are also discussed. The results show that unbiasing of the indirect force measurement by means of force calibration will allow the use of conventional tools in robotic endovascular procedures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2045
JournalInternational Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2020


  • bilevel optimization
  • endovascular robot
  • force calibration
  • minimally invasive surgical procedure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Biophysics
  • Computer Science Applications


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