Focus on organoids: cooperation and interconnection with extracellular vesicles – Is this the future of in vitro modeling?

Ancuta Jurj, Sergiu Pasca, Cornelia Braicu, Ioana Rusu, Schuyler S. Korban, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Organoids are simplified in vitro model systems of organs that are used for modeling tissue development and disease, drug screening, cell therapy, and personalized medicine. Despite considerable success in the design of organoids, challenges remain in achieving real-life applications. Organoids serve as unique and organized groups of micro physiological systems that are capable of self-renewal and self-organization. Moreover, they exhibit similar organ functionality(ies) as that of tissue(s) of origin. Organoids can be designed from adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, or embryonic stem cells. They consist of most of the important cell types of the desired tissue/organ along with the topology and cell-cell interactions that are highly similar to those of an in vivo tissue/organ. Organoids have gained interest in human biomedical research, as they demonstrate high promise for use in basic, translational, and applied research. As in vitro models, organoids offer significant opportunities for reducing the reliance and use of experimental animals. In this review, we will provide an overview of organoids, as well as those intercellular communications mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs), and discuss the importance of organoids in modeling a tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). Organoids can also be exploited to develop a better understanding of intercellular communications mediated by EVs. Also, organoids are useful in mimicking TIME, thereby offering a better-controlled environment for studying various associated biological processes and immune cell types involved in tumor immunity, such as T-cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, among others.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)367-381
Number of pages15
JournalSeminars in Cancer Biology
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • Cancer
  • Extracellular matrix
  • Organoids
  • Tumor microenvironment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research


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