The work that lead to our ICCD-1999 FlexRAM paper  started in 1996. At that time, there was great interest in the potential of integrating compute capabilities in large DRAM memories - an architecture called Processing-In-Memory (PIM) or Intelligent Memory. Prof. Kogge at the University of Notre Dame had been an early and persistent proponent of the technology since his EXECUBE work . Prof. Patterson at UC Berkeley had been leading the Berkeley IRAM project , and co-organized a workshop on these architectures in June 1997 . In addition, Dr. Lucas from DARPA was outlining plans for an effort in this area. Finally, some chip manufacturers were investing in a DRAM technology that could be compatible with high-speed logic - e.g., IBM's CMOS 7LD and Mitsubishi's ERAM.