Flavor chemistry of lemon-lime carbonated beverages

Bethany J. Hausch, Yaowapa Lorjaroenphon, Keith R. Cadwallader

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The most potent aroma-active components of Sprite (SP), Sierra Mist (SM), and 7UP (7UP) were identified. Aroma extracts were prepared by liquid-liquid continuous extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (LLCE/SAFE). Twenty-eight compounds were detected by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) with linalool (floral, lavender), octanal (pungent orange), and 2,3-dehydro-1,8-cineole (minty) determined to be predominant aroma compounds based on their high flavor dilution (FD) factors by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). The data indicate that lemon-lime flavor is composed of a small number of compounds (22 at the most in SM), and only a subset of these may be important because many compounds were detected only at low FD factors. Predominant aroma compounds (23) were quantified using static headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). In contrast to FD factors, the calculated odor-activity values (OAVs) indicate that octanal and limonene make the greatest contribution to the overall aroma of lemon-lime carbonated beverages, followed by nonanal, decanal, linalool, 1,8-cineole, and geranyl acetate. The results demonstrate that lemon-lime carbonated beverages share many of the same compounds but the relative abundance of these compounds varies by brand.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)112-119
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 14 2015


  • 2,3-dehydro-1,8-cineole
  • Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA)
  • Carbonated beverage
  • Flavor chemistry
  • Lemon-lime
  • Limonene
  • Linalool
  • Octanal
  • Odor-activity value (OAV)
  • Stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


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