Flavin-based fluorescent proteins: Emerging paradigms in biological imaging

Arnab Mukherjee, Charles M. Schroeder

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Flavin-based fluorescent proteins (FbFPs) are an emerging class of fluorescent reporters characterized by oxygen-independent fluorescence and a small size - key advantages compared to the green fluorescent protein (GFP). FbFPs are at a nascent stage of development. However, they have already been used as versatile reporters for studying anaerobic biosystems and viral assemblies. Recently, FbFPs with improved brightness and photostability have been engineered. In addition, several FbFPs show high degrees of thermal and pH stability. For these reasons, FbFPs hold strong promise to extend bioimaging to clinically and industrially significant systems that have been challenging to study using GFPs. In this review, we highlight recent developments in the FbFP toolbox and explore further improvements necessary to maximize the potential of FbFPs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)16-23
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Opinion in Biotechnology
StatePublished - Feb 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomedical Engineering


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