Flame synthesis of 1-D complex metal oxide nanomaterials

Lili Cai, Pratap Mahesh Rao, Yunzhe Feng, Xiaolin Zheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


One dimensional (1-D) complex metal oxide nanomaterials, such as ternary oxides, doped oxides, and hierarchical structures containing several oxides, not only benefit from large aspect ratios, but also offer exciting opportunities to design materials with desired properties by tuning their chemical compositions and tailoring their sizes and morphologies at the nanometer scale. Flame synthesis is an attractive method to grow 1-D complex metal oxide nanostructures because of its high temperature, scalability, low-cost and rapid growth rate. Here, we present three new combined flame synthesis methods: (1) simultaneous vapor-vapor growth, (2) simultaneous solid-vapor growth, and (3) sequential solid-vapor growth, to grow 1-D complex metal oxide nanostructures with well-defined compositions and morphologies. These three methods combine the previously reported flame vapor deposition and solid diffusion growth methods that were separately used to grow 1-D simple binary metal oxide nanostructures, and significantly advance the capabilities of existing flame synthesis methods for the growth of 1-D nanomaterials. The first method, simultaneous vapor-vapor growth, combines the flame vapor deposition growth of two different metal oxides by oxidizing and evaporating two different metal sources. With this we have successfully grown W-doped MoO3 nanoplates and nanoflowers. In the second method, simultaneous solid-vapor growth, one precursor is again provided by oxidizing and evaporating metal oxide from a metal, while the other precursor diffuses out from a different growth substrate. With this we have successfully grown ternary Cu3Mo2O9 nanowires. The third method, sequential solid-vapor growth, essentially uses the 1-D nanostructures firstly grown by solid diffusion as the substrates for subsequent flame vapor deposition. With this we have successfully grown hierarchical CuO/MoO 3 core/shell nanowires and MoO3-branched CuO nanowires. We believe that these three new combined flame synthesis methods will provide a general platform for the synthesis of 1-D complex metal oxide nanostructures with tailored properties.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2229-2236
Number of pages8
JournalProceedings of the Combustion Institute
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • 1-D Nanomaterials
  • Flame synthesis
  • Metal oxide
  • Nanowires
  • Solid diffusion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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