Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish

Lin Ye, Jon Amberg, Duane Chapman, Mark Gaikowski, Wen Tso Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440 000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD-H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP-H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD-H and SVCP-H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish's major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD-H (14.9-22.8%) than in SVCP-H (0.13-4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)541-551
Number of pages11
JournalISME Journal
Volume8
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2014

Keywords

  • Asian carp
  • gizzard shad
  • gut microbial community
  • pyrosequencing
  • silver carp

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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