The causal structure of Einstein's evolution equations is considered. We show that in general they can be written as a first-order system of balance laws for any choice of slicing or shift. We also show how certain terms in the evolution equations, which can lead to numerical inaccuracies, can be eliminated by using the Hamiltonian constraint. Furthermore, we show that the entire system is hyperbolic when the time coordinate is chosen in an invariant algebraic way, and for any fixed choice of the shift. This is achieved by using the momentum constraints in such a way that no additional space or time derivatives of the equations need to be computed. The slicings that allow hyperbolicity in this formulation belong to a large class, including harmonic, maximal, and many others that have been commonly used in numerical relativity. We provide details of some of the advanced numerical methods that this formulation of the equations allows, and we also discuss certain advantages that a hyperbolic formulation provides when treating boundary conditions.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology|
|State||Published - 1997|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Nuclear and High Energy Physics
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)