First Confirmed Diagnosis of Nocardioform Placentitis (Amycolatopsis lexingtonensis) in South America

Francieli P. Carneiro, Maria A. Alonso, Mariana A. Redoan, Dyana A. Henriques, Fábio M. Lima, Rosana M. Oliveira, Bruno Cogliati, Igor F. Canisso, Claudia B. Fernandes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Nocardioform placentitis is a pathologically unique form of placental disease first diagnosed in central Kentucky in the mid-80s. Since then, the occurrence of nocardioform placentitis in the region has varied over the years, from sporadic cases to outbreaks. The disease has been sporadically detected in other countries and has not been confirmed in South America. A 13-year-old multiparous Mangalarga delivered a healthy filly at 340d gestation. The mare passed the fetal membranes 33 minute after foaling. Gross examination of the fetal membranes identified two focal lesions on the chorionic surface consistent with focal mucoid placentitis. Histopathologic evaluation revealed hyperplasia and degeneration of the allantoic mesoderm, intense mononuclear inflammatory infiltrates with marked lymphocytes and plasma, and occasional macrophages and neutrophils in the microvilli. Necrotic debris and exudate were identified in the chorionic epithelium, with macrophages, plasma cells, and neutrophils confirming the diagnosis of focal mucoid placentitis. The exudate culture revealed white, firm, punctiform colonies of ∼1 mm diameter. Gram staining revealed bacilli with rounded ends and branching aspect typical of actinomycetes. PCR using primers for the 16S rRNA identified the genera of bacteria as Amycolatopsis. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis identified the isolate as Amycolatopsis lexingtonensis. In conclusion, we described the first confirmed case of nocardioform placentitis in South America. The present case was associated with the birth of a full-term healthy live foal; this result is consistent with Amycolatopsis spp and, in this case, was caused by A. lexingtonensis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number103835
JournalJournal of Equine Veterinary Science
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • Actinomycetes
  • Focal mucoid placentitis
  • Perinatology
  • Placentitis
  • Pregnancy wastage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Equine


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