First- and Second-Generation Impacts of the Biafran War &

Richard Akresh, Sonia Bhalotra, Marinella Leone, Una Osili

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We analyze long-term impacts of the 1967-1970 Nigerian Civil War, providing the first evidence of intergenerational impacts. War exposure among women results in reduced adult stature, an increased likelihood of being overweight, earlier age at first birth, and lower educational attainment. War exposure of mothers has adverse impacts on next-generation child survival, growth, and education. Impacts vary with age of exposure. For the mother and child health outcomes, the largest impacts stem from adolescent exposure. Exposure to a primary education program mitigates impacts of war exposure. War exposure leads to men marrying later and having fewer children.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)489-531
Number of pages43
JournalJournal of Human Resources
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Strategy and Management
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
  • Management of Technology and Innovation


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