Emission factors of carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC), as well as combustion efficiency and particle optical properties were measured during 37 uncontrolled cooking tests of residential stoves in Yunnan Province, China. Fuel mixtures included coal, woody biomass, and agricultural waste. Compared to previously published emission measurements of similar stoves, these measurements have higher CO and PM2.5 emission factors. Real-time data show two distinct burn phases: a devolatilization phase after fuel addition with high PM2.5 emissions and a solid-fuel combustion phase with low PM2.5 emissions. The average emission factors depend on the relative contributions of these phases, which are affected by the services provided by the stoves. Differences in stove and fuel characteristics that are not represented in emission inventories affect the variability of emission factors much more than do the type of solid fuel or stove. In developing inventories with highly variable sources such as residential solid-fuel combustion, we suggest that (1) all fuels should be accounted for, not just the primary fuel; (2) the household service provided should be emphasized rather than specific combinations of solid fuels and devices; and (3) the devolatilization phase should be explicitly measured and represented.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry