Fertility, Contraception, and Novel Reproductive Technologies in Chronic Kidney Disease

Sofia B. Ahmed, Wendy S. Vitek, Jean L. Holley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function, leading to menstrual abnormalities, sexual dysfunction, functional menopause, and loss of fertility. Pregnancy in a patient with CKD is associated with a higher risk of complications to both the mother and the fetus, highlighting the importance of contraceptive counseling at all stages of CKD. There has been limited research on the safety and efficacy of different contraceptive methods in the CKD population, and it is important to tailor the choice of contraception to the patient's lifestyle and comorbidity status. Cyclophosphamide is a commonly used immunosuppressive agent that impairs fertility in a dose-dependent fashion, with greater impact in older women of child-bearing age. Strategies to reduce the impact of cyclophosphamide on ovarian reserve as well as fertility preservation technologies are options to consider when treating immune-mediated CKD. A multidisciplinary approach in counseling the woman with CKD who wishes to contemplate or avoid pregnancy is necessary to optimize outcomes. Further research in this important area is required.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)327-336
Number of pages10
JournalSeminars in Nephrology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2017


  • Chronic kidney disease
  • contraception
  • cyclophosphamide
  • fertility
  • ovarian reserve
  • pregnancy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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