Lysosome-mediated macroautophagy, including lipophagy, is activated under nutrient deprivation but is repressed after feeding. We show that, unexpectedly, feeding activates intestinal autophagy/lipophagy in a manner dependent on both the orphan nuclear receptor, small heterodimer partner (SHP/NR0B2), and the gut hormone, fibroblast growth factor-15/19 (FGF15/19). Furthermore, postprandial intestinal triglycerides (TGs) and apolipoprotein-B48 (ApoB48), the TG-rich chylomicron marker, were elevated in SHP-knockout and FGF15-knockout mice. Genomic analyses of the mouse intestine indicated that SHP partners with the key lysosomal activator, transcription factor-EB (TFEB) to upregulate the transcription of autophagy/lipolysis network genes after feeding. FGF19 treatment activated lipophagy, reducing TG and ApoB48 levels in HT29 intestinal cells, which was dependent on TFEB. Mechanistically, feeding-induced FGF15/19 signaling increased the nuclear localization of TFEB and SHP via PKC beta/zeta-mediated phosphorylation, leading to increased transcription of the TFEB/SHP target lipophagy genes, Ulk1 and Atgl. Collectively, these results demonstrate that paradoxically after feeding, FGF15/19-activated SHP and TFEB activate gut lipophagy, limiting postprandial TGs. As excess postprandial lipids cause dyslipidemia and obesity, the FGF15/19-SHP-TFEB axis that reduces intestinal TGs via lipophagic activation provides promising therapeutic targets for obesity-associated metabolic disease.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)