Fast full-wave surface integral equation solver for multiscale structure modeling

Zhi Guo Qian, Weng Cho Chew

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We describe a full-wave solver to model large-scale and complex multiscale structures. It uses the augmented electric field integral equation (A-EFIE), which includes both the charge and the current as unknowns to avoid the imbalance between the vector potential and the scalar potential in the conventional EFIE. The formulation proves to be stable in the low-frequency regime with the appropriate frequency scaling and the enforcement of charge neutrality. To conquer large-scale and complex problems, we solve the equation using iterative methods, design an efficient constraint preconditioning, and employ the mixed-form fast multipole algorithm (FMA) to accelerate the matrix-vector product. Numerical tests on various examples show high accuracy and fast convergence. At last, complex interconnect and packaging problems with over one million integral equation unknowns can be solved without the help of a parallel computer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4982767
Pages (from-to)3594-3601
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2009


  • Electric field integral equation (EFIE)
  • Low-frequency
  • Method of moments (MoM)
  • Mixed-form fast multipole algorithm
  • Multiscale

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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