We describe a full-wave solver to model large-scale and complex multiscale structures. It uses the augmented electric field integral equation (A-EFIE), which includes both the charge and the current as unknowns to avoid the imbalance between the vector potential and the scalar potential in the conventional EFIE. The formulation proves to be stable in the low-frequency regime with the appropriate frequency scaling and the enforcement of charge neutrality. To conquer large-scale and complex problems, we solve the equation using iterative methods, design an efficient constraint preconditioning, and employ the mixed-form fast multipole algorithm (FMA) to accelerate the matrix-vector product. Numerical tests on various examples show high accuracy and fast convergence. At last, complex interconnect and packaging problems with over one million integral equation unknowns can be solved without the help of a parallel computer.
- Electric field integral equation (EFIE)
- Method of moments (MoM)
- Mixed-form fast multipole algorithm
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering