Factors that influence mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus at the time of unloading animals into slaughter plant lairage

James F Lowe, Ryan McCann, Laura Greiner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Summary Objectives: To estimate the impact of environmental conditions and management practices on the likelihood of cross-contamination of a pig transport vehicle with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) during market-animal unloading. Materials and methods: An experimental model was developed to simulate indirect contact involving footwear between an unloading dock and a pig transport vehicle. Two experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 evaluated temperature on the model trailer (4°C, 15°C, or 28°C) for 60 minutes after contact with the contaminated dock (32 contact replicates per temperature). In Experiment 2, conditions on the model dock were evaluated in a 2 . 2 . 2 factorial arrangement with repeated measures. Main effects were temperature (4°C or 32°C), ultraviolet light (ambient or supplemental), and mechanical scraping (de-bulked or not) with four contact events per combination. Samples were collected using a "Swiffer" (Procter & Gamble, Cincinnati, Ohio). All samples were tested for PRRSV using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: Experiment 1: Temperature did not affect the amount of PRRSV RNA recovered. If PRRSV RNA was detected on the model dock, it was transferred and detected on the model trailer 80% of the time (95% CI, 70.0%-90.0%). Experiment 2: De-bulking resulted in a significant reduction in the likelihood of transfer (odds ratio = 0.14; 95% CI, 0.06-0.32). Implications: Contact at the harvest plant lairage unloading is a risk factor for PRRSV transmission with inadequate livestock trailer hygiene. This risk can be mitigated through mechanical removal of gross contamination of the dock.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19-23
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Swine Health and Production
Volume25
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

Fingerprint

Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus
lairage
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
slaughter
trailers
Temperature
animals
temperature
Swine
RNA
indirect contact
swine
cross contamination
Practice Management
environmental management
virus transmission
Livestock
Ultraviolet Rays
Hygiene
hygiene

Keywords

  • Biosecurity
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
  • Swine
  • Transportation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Animals
  • Animal Science and Zoology

Cite this

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title = "Factors that influence mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus at the time of unloading animals into slaughter plant lairage",
abstract = "Summary Objectives: To estimate the impact of environmental conditions and management practices on the likelihood of cross-contamination of a pig transport vehicle with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) during market-animal unloading. Materials and methods: An experimental model was developed to simulate indirect contact involving footwear between an unloading dock and a pig transport vehicle. Two experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 evaluated temperature on the model trailer (4°C, 15°C, or 28°C) for 60 minutes after contact with the contaminated dock (32 contact replicates per temperature). In Experiment 2, conditions on the model dock were evaluated in a 2 . 2 . 2 factorial arrangement with repeated measures. Main effects were temperature (4°C or 32°C), ultraviolet light (ambient or supplemental), and mechanical scraping (de-bulked or not) with four contact events per combination. Samples were collected using a {"}Swiffer{"} (Procter & Gamble, Cincinnati, Ohio). All samples were tested for PRRSV using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: Experiment 1: Temperature did not affect the amount of PRRSV RNA recovered. If PRRSV RNA was detected on the model dock, it was transferred and detected on the model trailer 80{\%} of the time (95{\%} CI, 70.0{\%}-90.0{\%}). Experiment 2: De-bulking resulted in a significant reduction in the likelihood of transfer (odds ratio = 0.14; 95{\%} CI, 0.06-0.32). Implications: Contact at the harvest plant lairage unloading is a risk factor for PRRSV transmission with inadequate livestock trailer hygiene. This risk can be mitigated through mechanical removal of gross contamination of the dock.",
keywords = "Biosecurity, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Swine, Transportation",
author = "Lowe, {James F} and Ryan McCann and Laura Greiner",
year = "2017",
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day = "1",
language = "English (US)",
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pages = "19--23",
journal = "Journal of Swine Health and Production",
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T1 - Factors that influence mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus at the time of unloading animals into slaughter plant lairage

AU - Lowe, James F

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N2 - Summary Objectives: To estimate the impact of environmental conditions and management practices on the likelihood of cross-contamination of a pig transport vehicle with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) during market-animal unloading. Materials and methods: An experimental model was developed to simulate indirect contact involving footwear between an unloading dock and a pig transport vehicle. Two experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 evaluated temperature on the model trailer (4°C, 15°C, or 28°C) for 60 minutes after contact with the contaminated dock (32 contact replicates per temperature). In Experiment 2, conditions on the model dock were evaluated in a 2 . 2 . 2 factorial arrangement with repeated measures. Main effects were temperature (4°C or 32°C), ultraviolet light (ambient or supplemental), and mechanical scraping (de-bulked or not) with four contact events per combination. Samples were collected using a "Swiffer" (Procter & Gamble, Cincinnati, Ohio). All samples were tested for PRRSV using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: Experiment 1: Temperature did not affect the amount of PRRSV RNA recovered. If PRRSV RNA was detected on the model dock, it was transferred and detected on the model trailer 80% of the time (95% CI, 70.0%-90.0%). Experiment 2: De-bulking resulted in a significant reduction in the likelihood of transfer (odds ratio = 0.14; 95% CI, 0.06-0.32). Implications: Contact at the harvest plant lairage unloading is a risk factor for PRRSV transmission with inadequate livestock trailer hygiene. This risk can be mitigated through mechanical removal of gross contamination of the dock.

AB - Summary Objectives: To estimate the impact of environmental conditions and management practices on the likelihood of cross-contamination of a pig transport vehicle with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) during market-animal unloading. Materials and methods: An experimental model was developed to simulate indirect contact involving footwear between an unloading dock and a pig transport vehicle. Two experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 evaluated temperature on the model trailer (4°C, 15°C, or 28°C) for 60 minutes after contact with the contaminated dock (32 contact replicates per temperature). In Experiment 2, conditions on the model dock were evaluated in a 2 . 2 . 2 factorial arrangement with repeated measures. Main effects were temperature (4°C or 32°C), ultraviolet light (ambient or supplemental), and mechanical scraping (de-bulked or not) with four contact events per combination. Samples were collected using a "Swiffer" (Procter & Gamble, Cincinnati, Ohio). All samples were tested for PRRSV using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: Experiment 1: Temperature did not affect the amount of PRRSV RNA recovered. If PRRSV RNA was detected on the model dock, it was transferred and detected on the model trailer 80% of the time (95% CI, 70.0%-90.0%). Experiment 2: De-bulking resulted in a significant reduction in the likelihood of transfer (odds ratio = 0.14; 95% CI, 0.06-0.32). Implications: Contact at the harvest plant lairage unloading is a risk factor for PRRSV transmission with inadequate livestock trailer hygiene. This risk can be mitigated through mechanical removal of gross contamination of the dock.

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