Factors related to pre-service teachers' attitudes towards inclusion: A case for Zambia

Florence Chuzu Muwana, Michaelene M. Ostrosky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Inclusive education has become a global trend in the provision of services for students with disabilities. In Zambia and other developing nations, international initiatives from UNESCO and other nongovernmental organisations have contributed to the consensus that all children have a right to a free and appropriate education and that all students with disabilities should be educated in inclusive settings. This study examined Zambian university students' attitudes towards including students with disabilities in general education classrooms. While attitudes towards inclusion have been studied widely in some countries, little research in this area has been conducted in Zambia. Questionnaires were distributed to 497 Zambian university students. Four hundred and eighty-four questionnaires were included in the analysis, resulting in a response rate of 97%. Results of the study indicated that, overall, Zambian university students hold positive attitudes towards inclusion. Several factors were found to be related to the students' attitudes towards inclusion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)763-782
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Inclusive Education
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 3 2014


  • attitudes
  • disability
  • inclusion
  • pre-service teachers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)


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