Facile nucleophilic fluorination reactions using tert-alcohols as a reaction medium: Significantly enhanced reactivity of alkali metal fluorides and improved selectivity

Wook Kim Dong, Hwan Jeong Jeong, Tae Lim Seok, Myung Hee Sohn, John A. Katzenellenbogen, Yoon Chi Dae

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

(Chemical Equation Presented) Although protic solvents are generally not preferred for nucleophilic displacement reactions because of their partial positive charge and hydrogen-bonding capacity that solvate the nucleophile and reduce its reactivity, we recently reported a remarkably beneficial effect of using tertiary alcohols as a reaction media for nucleophilic fluorination with alkali metal fluorides, as well as fluorine-18 radiolabeling with [ 18F]fluoride ion for the preparation of PET radiopharmaceuticals. In this work, we investigate further the influence of the tert-alcohol reaction medium for nucleophilic fluorination with alkali metal fluorides by studying various interactions among tert-alcohols, the alkali metal fluoride (CsF), and the sulfonyloxy substrate. Factors such as hydrogen bonding between CsF and the tert-alcohol solvent, the formation of a tert-alcohol solvated fluoride, and hydrogen bonding between the sulfonate leaving group and the tert-alcohol appear to contribute to the dramatic increase in the rate of the nucleophilic fluorination reaction in the absence of any kind of catalyst. We found that fluorination of 1-(2-mesyloxyethyl)naphthalene (5) and N-5-bromopentanoyl-3,4- dimethoxyaniline (8) with Bu4N+F- in a tert-alcohol afforded the corresponding fluoro products in much higher yield than obtained by the conventional methods using dipolar aprotic solvents. The protic medium also suppresses formation of byproducts, such as alkenes, ethers, and cyclic adducts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)957-962
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Organic Chemistry
Volume73
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organic Chemistry

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