Extraction techniques and analysis of anthocyanins from food sources by mass spectrometry: An update

Paulina Ongkowijoyo, Diego A. Luna-Vital, Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


This article reviews recent developments in methods of sample preparation and analytical methodologies for the quantification of anthocyanins and their extraction from food sources. Various methods for sample extraction and purification are highlighted and evaluated. The use of UV-diode array, along with improved liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) and/or the combination of both methods have facilitated the identification of analytes. The use of one-dimensional and two-dimensional HPLC has significantly improved resolution with a shorter amount of time. Other LC × LC combinations to improve orthogonality are also discussed. The most efficient anthocyanin extraction method from food sources is pressurized liquid extraction. Moreover, electrospray ionization (ESI) and MS2/time-of-flight are currently the most popular instruments used for identification of anthocyanins; being positive mode of ESI the most widely used procedure for anthocyanin identification. Several databases for mass spectrometry polyphenol identification have been described for reference.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)113-126
Number of pages14
JournalFood chemistry
StatePublished - Jun 1 2018


  • Anthocyanins
  • Flavonoids
  • Mass spectrometry
  • Pressurized liquid extraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Food Science


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