Exponential-RED: A stabilizing AQM scheme for low- and high-speed TCP protocols

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper introduces and analyzes a decentralized network congestion control algorithm which has dynamic adaptations at both user ends and link ends, a so-called general primal-dual algorithm. We obtain sufficient conditions for local stability of this algorithm in a general topology network with heterogeneous round-trip delays. Then, as an implementation of this algorithm in the Internet, we introduce an AQM (Active Queue Management) scheme called Exponential-RED (E-RED), which outperforms RED and is inherently stable when combined with TCP-Reno or its variants for high-speed networks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1068-1081
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2005


  • Congestion control
  • Dual algorithm
  • Primal algorithm
  • Primal-dual algorithm
  • RED
  • TCP

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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