Exploring phenotypic overlap across schizotypy and autism spectrum conditions in American and Chinese young adults

Marianne G. Chirica, Yiqin Zhu, Wenting Mu, Hanyu Zhou, Jingbo Gong, Raymond C.K. Chan, Thomas R. Kwapil, Howard Berenbaum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Competing theories have been proposed to explain the considerable overlap in social-cognitive features and risk factors across schizotypy and autism spectrum conditions (ASCs). Six previous factor analyses have been reported in the literature, yet all have major limitations; evidence for the clear superiority of any of the competing theories is insufficient and warrants further investigation. The primary aim of the present research was to identify dimensions that cut across schizotypy and ASCs while addressing limitations of past research. Data were collected from three independent samples (n = 1006, 544, and 2469) in the U.S. and China using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, and the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales. Exploratory factor analyses in Sample 1 identified an interpretable three-factor structure, which was replicated in Samples 2 and 3 using confirmatory factor analyses. We found consistent evidence for three dimensions (Aberrant Salience, Asociality, and Concrete Thinking) underlying schizotypy and ASCs. This three-dimension model is consistent with a common vulnerability model of schizotypy and ASCs. Implications of these findings for the schizotypy and ASCs literature are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)359-366
Number of pages8
JournalSchizophrenia Research
StatePublished - May 2024


  • Affect
  • Common vulnerability model
  • Diametrical continuum model
  • Factor analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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