Experimental study of sprays with isooctane, hexane, ethanol and their binary mixtures under different flash boiling intensities

Junhao Yan, Suya Gao, Weihua Zhao, Timothy H. Lee, Chia Fon Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This work investigated the behaviors of single-component and multi-component sprays under different flash boiling intensities. Isooctane, hexane, ethanol, isooctane-hexane, and isooctane-ethanol mixtures were used as test fuels. The pressure ratio of the ambient pressure over saturation pressure (Rp) was used as the indicator of the superheated degree. Macroscopic characteristics of the sprays under 10 different Rp (1.1 to 0.14) were investigated using Diffused Backlight Imaging (DBI). Droplet size, which revealed the spray microscopic characteristics, was also investigated using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). The results showed that ambient pressure reduction led to higher flash boiling intensity, significant spray morphology changes, and smaller droplet size, regardless of the fuel type and blend ratios. Spray collapse was observed for all sprays once Rp dropped below 0.3. Spray collapse dramatically increased the liquid penetration length, expanded the near-field spray angle, and reduced the far-field angle for sprays with all the fuels. Fuel properties, such as the latent heat of vaporization, had significant impacts on droplet size distributions, thus altering the liquid penetration length and spray angles. Under similar Rp, sprays with high ethanol content generally had larger droplet sizes compared with other fuel sprays due to the high latent heat of vaporization. The larger droplets caused the high ethanol content sprays to be more resistant to the plume trajectory change, resulting in a smaller far-field spray angle variations with changing Rp. At Rp of 0.28, sprays with the similar latent heat of vaporization have similar droplet sizes, and droplet sizes at different radial locations were also similar to each other.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number121715
JournalInternational Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
StatePublished - Nov 2021


  • Droplet size
  • Ethanol
  • Flash boiling spray
  • Gasoline engines
  • Multi-component fuel
  • Spray collapse

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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