Experimental spatial sampling study of the real-time ultrasonic pulse-echo BAI-mode imaging technique

Xiangtao Yin, Scott A. Morris, William D. O'Brien

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The ultrasonic pulse-echo backscattered amplitude integral (BAI)-mode imaging technique has been developed to inspect the seal integrity of hermetically sealed, flexible food packages. With a focused 17.3-MHz transducer acquiring radio frequency (RF) echo data in a static rectilinear stop-and-go pattern, this technique was able to reliably detect channel defects as small as 38 μm in diameter and occasionally detect 6-μm-diameter channels. This contribution presents our experimental spatial sampling study of the BAI-mode imaging technique with a continuous zigzag scanning protocol that simulates a real-time production line inspection method in continuous motion. Two transducers (f/2 17.3 MHz and f/3 20.3 MHz) were used to acquire RF echo data in a zigzag raster pattern from plastic film samples bearing rectilinear point reflector arrays of varying grid spacings. The average BAI-value difference (ΔBAI) between defective and intact regions and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were used to assess image quality as a function of three spatial sampling variables: transducer spatial scanning step size, array sample grid spacing, and transducer -6-dB pulse-echo focal beam spot size. For a given grid size, the ΔBAI and CNR degraded as scanning step size in each spatial dimension increased. There is an engineering trade-off between the BAI-mode image quality and the transducer spatial sampling. The optimal spatial sampling step size has been identified to be between one and two times the -6-dB pulse-echo focal beam lateral diameter.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)428-440
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Experimental spatial sampling study of the real-time ultrasonic pulse-echo BAI-mode imaging technique'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this