Examining the role of feedback in TMS-induced visual suppression: A cautionary tale

Evan G. Center, Ramisha Knight, Monica Fabiani, Gabriele Gratton, Diane M. Beck

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Visual suppression by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (sTMS) has been attributed to interruptions of either feedforward or feedback activity in the visual stream. The relative timing of the C1 event related potential (ERP) and of the TMS suppression, taken from separate studies, supports an interruption of feedback. Here we probe the validity of such cross-study comparisons, both by conducting a literature survey and by measuring each time window within participants for the same stimuli. Cortical transmission time was estimated using the C1. We then suppressed the same stimuli that elicited the C1 using sTMS of variable post-stimulus lags. Results do not conclusively discriminate between interruption of feedback or feedforward mechanisms as the source of the visual suppression. We suggest that more evidence is needed to distinguish between feedback and feedforward interference in TMS suppression effects and we advise caution in making inferences derived from separate literatures, using different stimuli.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102805
JournalConsciousness and Cognition
StatePublished - Oct 2019


  • Awareness
  • C1 component
  • Feedback
  • Suppression
  • TMS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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