This chapter examines the contours of racial ideologies and their impacts on social dynamics in the 19th and early 20th centuries in Illinois by undertaking historical, archaeological, and comparative studies of three African American communities. In addition to overt acts of racism and racial violence, African American communities in the 19th century combated various forms of structural and aversive racism that diverted economic opportunities away from them and presented challenges for households to overcome. I examine such dynamics using examples from archaeological and historical analysis of three communities in Illinois: New Philadelphia, Brooklyn, and the Equal Rights settlement outside of Galena. This study employs research questions that confront multiple social dynamics that impacted dispositions in the past and continue to influence the present.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe materiality of freedom
Subtitle of host publicationArchaeologies of postemancipation life
EditorsJodi A Barnes
Place of PublicationColumbia, SC
PublisherUniversity of South Carolina Press
Number of pages17
ISBN (Print)9781611170344
StatePublished - 2011


  • Reconstruction (U.S. history, 1865-1877)
  • USA
  • Antiquities
  • United States
  • Social archaeology
  • African Americans


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