Examining domains of technological pedagogical content knowledge using factor analysis

Valerie Harlow Shinas, Sule Yilmaz-Ozden, Chrystalla Mouza, Rachel Karchmer-Klein, Joseph J. Glutting

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study examined the construct validity of the Survey of Preservice Teachers' Knowledge of Teaching and Technology through an exploratory factor analysis using responses from 365 preservice teachers enrolled in an educational technology course in the United States. The participants were completing methods courses and field experience concurrent to the educational technology course, allowing them to contextualize the content they learned during the semester. The survey, grounded in ike framework of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), is designed to measure seven domains associated with technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge. Although the influence of the TPACK framework on teacher education programs continues to grow, research indicates the need for clearer distinctions between the domains. Results from this study revealed that participants did not always make conceptual distinctions between the TPACK domains. Specifically, factors were congruent across only technological knowledge (TK) and content knowledge (CK) and not congruent across pedagogical knowledge (PK), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), technological content knowledge (TCK), and TPACK. Additionally, PK and PCK loaded together, indicating the participants did not distinguish PKfrom PCK. Overall, this study confirms the need to provide more clarity about the TPACK framework and to revisit survey instruments built directly around the framework.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)339-360
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Research on Technology in Education
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Factor analysis
  • Preservice teachers
  • Survey
  • Teacher education

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Computer Science Applications


Dive into the research topics of 'Examining domains of technological pedagogical content knowledge using factor analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this