Evolutionary change in the process of dorsoventral axis determination in the direct developing sea urchin, Heliocidaris erythrogramma

Jonathan J. Henry, Rudolf A. Raff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Embryos of the indirect developing sea urchin, Heliocidaris tuberculata, and of Heliocidaris erythrogramma which develops directly without the formation of a pluteus larva, were bisected at the two- and four-cell stages. Paired half-embryos resulting from the bisection of H. tuberculata embryos along either the first or the second cleavage plane develop identically into miniature prism stage larvae. As in other indirect developing sea urchins, no differential segregation of developmental potential takes place as a result of the first and second cleavage divisions. Although half-embryos resulting from bisection along the second cleavage plane differentiate all cell types and develop equivalently in H. erythrogramma, the isolated first cleavage blastomeres do not. One of these two cells always forms significantly more mesodermal and endodermal cells. These patterns of differentiation are consistent with fate-mapping studies indicating that most mesodermal and endodermal cells are derived from the prospective ventral blastomere. Therefore, a differential segregation of developmental potential takes place at the first cleavage division in H. erythrogramma. When embryos of H. erythrogramma were bisected during the eight-cell stage, isolated tiers of animal blastomeres typically formed only ectodermal structures including the vestibule, whereas vegetal embryo halves formed all differentiated cell types. We propose that animal-vegetal cell determination and differentiation takes place along an axis which has been shifted relative to the pattern of cell cleavages in the embryos of H. erythrogramma. Vegetal morphogenetic potential for the formation of mesodermal and endodermal structures has become more closely associated with the prospective ventral side of the embryo during the evolution of direct development in Heliocidaris.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)55-69
Number of pages15
JournalDevelopmental Biology
Volume141
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1990

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Anthocidaris
Sea Urchins
Embryonic Structures
Blastomeres
Larva
Cell Differentiation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

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title = "Evolutionary change in the process of dorsoventral axis determination in the direct developing sea urchin, Heliocidaris erythrogramma",
abstract = "Embryos of the indirect developing sea urchin, Heliocidaris tuberculata, and of Heliocidaris erythrogramma which develops directly without the formation of a pluteus larva, were bisected at the two- and four-cell stages. Paired half-embryos resulting from the bisection of H. tuberculata embryos along either the first or the second cleavage plane develop identically into miniature prism stage larvae. As in other indirect developing sea urchins, no differential segregation of developmental potential takes place as a result of the first and second cleavage divisions. Although half-embryos resulting from bisection along the second cleavage plane differentiate all cell types and develop equivalently in H. erythrogramma, the isolated first cleavage blastomeres do not. One of these two cells always forms significantly more mesodermal and endodermal cells. These patterns of differentiation are consistent with fate-mapping studies indicating that most mesodermal and endodermal cells are derived from the prospective ventral blastomere. Therefore, a differential segregation of developmental potential takes place at the first cleavage division in H. erythrogramma. When embryos of H. erythrogramma were bisected during the eight-cell stage, isolated tiers of animal blastomeres typically formed only ectodermal structures including the vestibule, whereas vegetal embryo halves formed all differentiated cell types. We propose that animal-vegetal cell determination and differentiation takes place along an axis which has been shifted relative to the pattern of cell cleavages in the embryos of H. erythrogramma. Vegetal morphogenetic potential for the formation of mesodermal and endodermal structures has become more closely associated with the prospective ventral side of the embryo during the evolution of direct development in Heliocidaris.",
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N2 - Embryos of the indirect developing sea urchin, Heliocidaris tuberculata, and of Heliocidaris erythrogramma which develops directly without the formation of a pluteus larva, were bisected at the two- and four-cell stages. Paired half-embryos resulting from the bisection of H. tuberculata embryos along either the first or the second cleavage plane develop identically into miniature prism stage larvae. As in other indirect developing sea urchins, no differential segregation of developmental potential takes place as a result of the first and second cleavage divisions. Although half-embryos resulting from bisection along the second cleavage plane differentiate all cell types and develop equivalently in H. erythrogramma, the isolated first cleavage blastomeres do not. One of these two cells always forms significantly more mesodermal and endodermal cells. These patterns of differentiation are consistent with fate-mapping studies indicating that most mesodermal and endodermal cells are derived from the prospective ventral blastomere. Therefore, a differential segregation of developmental potential takes place at the first cleavage division in H. erythrogramma. When embryos of H. erythrogramma were bisected during the eight-cell stage, isolated tiers of animal blastomeres typically formed only ectodermal structures including the vestibule, whereas vegetal embryo halves formed all differentiated cell types. We propose that animal-vegetal cell determination and differentiation takes place along an axis which has been shifted relative to the pattern of cell cleavages in the embryos of H. erythrogramma. Vegetal morphogenetic potential for the formation of mesodermal and endodermal structures has become more closely associated with the prospective ventral side of the embryo during the evolution of direct development in Heliocidaris.

AB - Embryos of the indirect developing sea urchin, Heliocidaris tuberculata, and of Heliocidaris erythrogramma which develops directly without the formation of a pluteus larva, were bisected at the two- and four-cell stages. Paired half-embryos resulting from the bisection of H. tuberculata embryos along either the first or the second cleavage plane develop identically into miniature prism stage larvae. As in other indirect developing sea urchins, no differential segregation of developmental potential takes place as a result of the first and second cleavage divisions. Although half-embryos resulting from bisection along the second cleavage plane differentiate all cell types and develop equivalently in H. erythrogramma, the isolated first cleavage blastomeres do not. One of these two cells always forms significantly more mesodermal and endodermal cells. These patterns of differentiation are consistent with fate-mapping studies indicating that most mesodermal and endodermal cells are derived from the prospective ventral blastomere. Therefore, a differential segregation of developmental potential takes place at the first cleavage division in H. erythrogramma. When embryos of H. erythrogramma were bisected during the eight-cell stage, isolated tiers of animal blastomeres typically formed only ectodermal structures including the vestibule, whereas vegetal embryo halves formed all differentiated cell types. We propose that animal-vegetal cell determination and differentiation takes place along an axis which has been shifted relative to the pattern of cell cleavages in the embryos of H. erythrogramma. Vegetal morphogenetic potential for the formation of mesodermal and endodermal structures has become more closely associated with the prospective ventral side of the embryo during the evolution of direct development in Heliocidaris.

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