Evaporated lithium surface coatings in NSTX

H. W. Kugel, D. Mansfield, R. Maingi, M. G. Bell, R. E. Bell, J. P. Allain, D. Gates, S. Gerhardt, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S. Kaye, B. LeBlanc, R. Majeski, J. Menard, D. Mueller, M. Ono, S. Paul, R. Raman, A. L. Roquemore, P. W. RossS. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C. H. Skinner, V. Soukhanovskii, T. Stevenson, J. Timberlake, W. R. Wampler, J. Wilgren, L. Zakharov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: (1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; (2) suppression of ELMs; (3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; (4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges; (5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; (6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; (7) reduced SOL plasma density; and (8) reduced edge neutral density.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1000-1004
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Nuclear Materials
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jun 15 2009
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • General Materials Science
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering


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