Evaluation of woodchips-amended biosand filter for nitrate and MS2 bacteriophage reduction

Chunhwa Jang, Hongxu Zhou, Elbashir Araud, Thanh H. Nguyen, Rabin Bhattarai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this study, two types of woodchip-amended biosand filters (Filter A sand: woodchip ¼ 33%: 67% versus Filter B sand: woodchip ¼ 50%: 50%, by volume) were constructed, and their abilities to remove MS2 bacteriophage and nitrate were investigated. The results indicated that Filter A and Filter B could reduce nitrate up to 40 and 36%, respectively, indicating that the nitrate reduction increased with the increase in woodchip proportion. The study underscores a positive correlation between nitrate reduction and proportional increase in woodchip content, implying the potential for fine-tuning nitrate removal by varying sand–woodchip compositions. W-BSFs could remove MS2 bacteriophage to 1.91-log10 (98.8%) by Filter A and 1.88-log10 (98.7%) by Filter B over 39 weeks. The difference in sand–woodchip proportion did not significantly impact the MS2 reduction, demonstrating that a single W-BSF can maintain its virus removal performance fairly well over a long-term period. These results indicated that the nitrate reduction could be adjusted by varying sand–woodchip contents without impacting virus removal performance. Microbial community analysis indicated that the nitrate removal by the W-BSFs could be attributed to the denitrifying bacteria, such as the family Streptomycetaceae, the genera Pseudomonas, and Bacillus, and relative abundances of the phylum Nitrospirae.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)138-146
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Water and Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2024


  • drinking water treatment
  • nitrate
  • point-of-use filter
  • virus reduction
  • water quality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Infectious Diseases


Dive into the research topics of 'Evaluation of woodchips-amended biosand filter for nitrate and MS2 bacteriophage reduction'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this