Evaluation of the electroencephalogram in awake, sedated, and anesthetized dogs

Daniel M. Sakai, H. Nicole Trenholme, Frederick J. Torpy, Hannah A. Craig, Rachel A. Reed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Sedation and anesthesia alter the raw electroencephalogram (EEG). Interpretation of the EEG is facilitated by measuring the patient state index (PSI), visual inspection of density spectral arrays (DSA), and power density analysis of the delta (0.1–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), and beta plus gamma (12–40 Hz) frequency bands. Baseline data were recorded in six male intact Beagles before sedation with intravenous acepromazine (0.03 mg/kg) and hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg). Anesthesia was induced and maintained for five minutes with intravenous propofol (1.5 mg/kg over five seconds followed by 12 mg/kg/h). Additional propofol (0.5–1.0 mg/kg and up to 16.7 mg/kg/h) was administered within this time frame if the PSI was above 50. The effects of sedation and anesthesia were evaluated with a mixed-effect model followed by Dunnett's test (alpha = 0.05). The average baseline PSI (95% confidence interval) was 93.0 (91.4–94.6) and decreased on sedation [88.7 (86.0–91.3); p = 0.039] and anesthesia [44.5 (40.8–48.2); p < 0.001]. The awake DSA showed dense power in all bands. The power density decreased with sedation. During anesthesia, the power density was reduced in frequencies above 12 Hz. The baseline power density on the delta, theta, alpha, and beta plus gamma bands was higher than sedation (p < 0.007). Compared to baseline, anesthesia had lower power on delta, and beta plus gamma bands (p < 0.002). The interpretation in awake, sedated, and anesthetized dogs of the EEG can be facilitated by processing and generating PSI and DSA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)66-71
Number of pages6
JournalResearch in Veterinary Science
StatePublished - Jun 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Anesthetic depth
  • Bispectral index
  • Canine
  • Monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Veterinary


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