Evaluation of potassium iodide (KI) and ammonium perchlorate (NH 4ClO4) to ameliorate 131I- exposure in the rat

C. A. Harris, J. W. Fisher, E. A. Rollor, D. C. Ferguson, B. C. Blount, L. Valentin-Blasini, M. A. Taylor, C. E. Dallas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Nuclear reactor accidents and the threat of nuclear terrorism have heightened the concern for adverse health risks associated with radiation poisoning. Potassium iodide (KI) is the only pharmaceutical intervention that is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treating 131I- exposure, a common radioactive fission product. Though effective, KI administration needs to occur prior to or as soon as possible (within a few hours) after radioactive exposure to maximize the radioprotective benefits of KI. During the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, KI was not administered soon enough after radiation poisoning occurred to thousands of people. The delay in administration of KI resulted in an increased incidence of childhood thyroid cancer. Perchlorate (ClO4 -) was suggested as another pharmaceutical radioprotectant for 131Ipoisoning because of its ability to block thyroidal uptake of iodide and discharge free iodide from the thyroid gland. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of KI and ammonium perchlorate to reduce thyroid gland exposure to radioactive iodide (131I-). Rats were dosed with 131I- tracer and 0.5 and 3 h later dosed orally with 30 mg/kg of either ammonium perchlorate or KI. Compared to controls, both anion treatments reduced thyroid gland exposure to 131I- equally, with a reduction ranging from 65 to 77%. Ammonium perchlorate was more effective than stable iodide for whole-body radioprotectant effectiveness. KI-treated animals excreted only 30% of the 131I- in urine after 15 h, compared to 47% in ammonium perchlorate-treated rats. Taken together, data suggest that KI and ammonium perchlorate are both able to reduce thyroid gland exposure to 131I- up to 3 h after exposure to 131I-. Ammonium perchlorate may offer an advantage over KI because of its ability to clear 131I- from the body.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)897-902
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues
Volume72
Issue number14
DOIs
StatePublished - 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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